Is there a simple and secure way to store Ethereum, similar to how Bitcoin can be stored using a hardware wallet, Sparrow wallet, and Bitcoin node running?
The equivalent of what you propose would be a hardware wallet + metamask + local geth node with lighthouse
Point metamask to your local geth node, no need for anything else. In Ethereum there are many nodes, so you can even choose between
geth/nethermind/besu/erigon and also between
lighthouse/prism/nimbus/lodestar/nimbus. Or any combination of those, maximum resilience.
For easy of use, you could use a dappnode, it's amazing and makes easy running your own node, even a bitcoin one!